Showing posts from November, 2018

Salt Based Nuclear Reactors - New Tech

Thorium Based Nuclear Power - Greener Electricity

Global Innovation Research
Thorium based nuclear reactors.  Global scientists are working on this promising greener form of nuclear energy.  Thorium is a moderately radioactive chemical.  It can be used as "fuel salt" in molten salt reactors to produce electricity.  It can't be used to produce nuclear weapons and produces much less dangerous waste than current nuclear power plants.

Advantages of Thorium and Who Is Working On It
The Netherlands and China are investing in this technology.  It offers the advantages of traditional reactors.  It's reliable, efficient and low carbon emissions electricity.  And that is without the big problems of radioactive waste and nuclear proliferation.  It's a promising and greener form of renewable nuclear energy.

The European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) believes thorium could be a radically disruptive source of clean energy, providing abundant electricity anytime and anyw…

From Tasmanian Devils, Cancer Cure?

Breakthrough Research - Certain Genes Shrink Tumors

Washington State University Innovative Cancer Research
Scientists at Washington State University have discovered genes and genetic mutations that appear to shrink deadly cancer tumors in Tasmanian devils.  This finding could have important implications for treating cancer in humans and other mammals.

Cancer Fighting Genes Leading to Drug Creation
The WSU scientists say some of the genes that they believe trigger tumor regression in the devils are also in humans.  This could lead to the development of drugs that shrink and potentially decimate tumors in humans.

A Species Plagued by Cancer
The devils are the largest carnivorous marsupial and found only in Tasmania.  A deadly, facial tumor disease has pushed the devils to near extinction.  80% of the population is gone.  An international team of scientists, led by WSU, found some of the animals are developing genetic resistance to the disease that shrinks the tumors and ends the cancer.  T…

Communicative Cat Brush - Japanese Innovation for Cat Lovers

Communicative Cat Grooming
Neko-jasuri Cat Groomer
It's called a communications brush to help an owner and their pet cat better interact and communicate with each other.  It's a metal brush - a pet hair brush inspired by another industry and company focused on metal files.  This innovation comes from Japan, that is a nation of pet lovers. The company that innovated and is developing this product is Wataoka, with expertise in making metal files for 126 years.

It's in the Grooves
Here's how they've innovated their metal files into advanced pet grooming tools.  The pet groomer has varying grooves patterned by the grooves in a cat's tongue.  They say the grooves are great for brushing and grooming your cat.  And, the cats are so familiar with the sensation they love it because it simulates what they do for themselves.

Japanese Innovation At a Global Pet Scale
Nedo-jasuri means cat file.  The Japanese government is profiling this innovation and showcasing it as a break…

NASA's InSight On Mars & Elon Musk's Goals

Earth to Mars Distance:  100 Million Mile Space Journey

Innovator Elon Musk 70% Sure He'll Move to Mars
NASA's InSight spacecraft just landed successfully on Mars.  It took a six month journey across 300 million miles.  The lander carries breakthrough equipment that will burrow deep into the Red Planet's surface.  This has never been done before.  Space X's Elon Musk believes in upcoming years he will have a 70% chance of moving to Mars.

Mars a Difficult Landing
InSight's landing was perfect.  But Mars isn't the best place to land.  The 3-legged spacecraft had to decelerate from 12,300 mph to zero in 6 minutes as it pierced the Martian atmosphere.  The 600 pound stationary lander has a 6 foot robotic arm that will place a mechanical mole and seismometer on the ground.  The mole hammers down to 16 feet to measure the planet's heat and the seismometer listens for any quakes.  Nothing like this has been done before on Mars.

Musk and Mars
Musk's Space X has de…

Dogs Know What They Don't Know

Dogs Appear to Have Metacognitive Abilities

Research from the Max Planck Institute
Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History have performed some innovative research on dogs.  The scientists findings:  dogs know what they know and know what they don't know.  Dogs problem solve by actively seeking information.

Canine Cunning Brains
This new research strongly suggests that dogs have metacognitive abilities.  They're aware when they don't have enough information to solve a problem and actively search for what they need to know to get the desired results.  This is similar to how primates behave but it's the first time it has been documented in dogs.

DogStudies Lab
At the Institute's DogStudies Lab the scientists created a test in which the dogs had to find a reward - a toy or treat - behind one of two fences.  The scientists found that the dogs looked for significantly more information when they didn't know where the reward was hidden.


Your Brain Predicts the Future

Brain Uses Two Clocks to Anticipate

Innovative Research - University of California - Berkeley
It's called anticipatory timing by the brain. And it's a 2 barreled system.  One type of timing relies on memories from past experience.  A second type is based on rhythm.  They work together.  An example is putting your foot on the car's gas pedal as the light starts turning from red to green.  Berkeley neuroscientists have discovered that in music, sports, speech and other activities we calculate movements in two parts of the brain.

Brain Timekeepers
The neural networks supporting these timekeepers are split between 2 different parts of the brain.  The scientists discovered that timing isn't a unified process.  Their research has documented that there are 2 different ways we make temporal decisions and they are dependent on different parts of the brain.

Your  Brain Actively Anticipating the Future
Berkeley scientists have provided a new perspective through their innovative rese…

Autonomous Mobile Hotel Rooms

Driverless Rooms to Your Destinations

Source:  Aprilli Design Studios

Important Innovations in Transportation
Here's an entrepreneurial gamble on future travel innovation.  Hotel rooms on autonomous wheels.  Driverless, self-driving vehicles that pick you up at your house or travel takeoff point and take you in your  fully equipped hotel room suite, to your destination.  It's called Autonomous Travel Suites (ATS).  It's the innovation of Aprilli Design Studio's Steve Lee of Toronto.  Lee calls it a hybrid concept combining his expertise in hotel architecture/design and futuristic technology.  The concept won this year's Radical Innovation Concept of the year, a design competition for the hospitality industry.

Mobile Hotel Suites
The mobile hotel suites are designed for journeys of 6 to 10 hours.  They contain essentially what you find in a hotel room.  They come in a range of sizes for solo travelers to families.  Lee envisions them being operated by "autonomous…

Robot Co-Pilots

On Military Duty

Ready When Needed
When US pilots go to war, the US Defense Department's Advanced Research Projects Agency DARPA wants robots as their co-pilots.  These are not auto-pilots.  DARPA wants fully functional robot pilots capable of performing routine piloting tasks.

DARPA just demonstrated what the plan consists of in Virginia.  They used a S-76B helicopter, which is the civilian version of the Army's Blackhawk, to perform maneuvers.  The aircraft landed, maneuvered to avoid a vehicle, lifted-off and then hovered motionlessly for several minutes.  No human was on board.  The pilot was a robot controlled by a human pilot from a computer in another aircraft.

Kit to Quickly Deploy
The demonstration lasted an hour.  The Army calls it Mission Adaptive Autonomy, meaning the robot is there when the pilot needs to focus on the mission rather than the flight.  DARPA wants a kit that can quickly add a robot co-pilot to any manned aircraft.  It's working with S…

Heart Benefits from Strength Training Exercise

Benefits Vary Among Dynamic & Static Exercises

New Research
The American College of Cardiology reports that static exercise activity like strength training is good and better for your heart.  It has stronger results for reducing heart disease risk than dynamic exercise activity like cycling, running and walking.

The results were presented at the LCC Latin America Conference 2018 in Lima, Peru. More than 4,000 American adults were tracked and analyzed on their exercise routines.  The research concludes that all types of physical activity and exercise are good for the heart.  But static activities, like aerobics and strength training, even in small amounts, proved to be the most beneficial.

Your Takeaways
The bottom-line from this research is that all exercise works.  Static and dynamic work separately, they work together but static exercise stands out as the most beneficial in preventing heart disease.

Innovation from 4000 Years Ago

Bronze Age Board Game Discovered

Game On Chiseled in Stone
A fascinating archeological discovery.  A dot pattern chiseled into stone in a rock shelter in Azerbaijan.  Archeologist Walter Crist, who discovered it, says it shows that an ancient Near Eastern game called 58 holes or Hounds and Jackals, spread to a population of herders in Azerbaijan.  That region is 1000 to 2000 kilometers away.

Roll of the Dice
Hounds and Jackals was thought to exist only in Egypt, Mesopotamia and other Near Eastern regions during the Bronze Age.  Dr. Crist, of the American Museum of Natural History in NYC, says the Azerbaijan herders must have had contact with the Near Eastern world more than 1200 miles away.  The archeologist says ancient games often passed across cultures.  In this case, players are thought to have rolled the dice to move pebbles and get to the top first.  4000 years ago, someone created a new piece of innovation -  a game and a roll of the dice.

Important Innovation Blogs News

Our Second Blog News Source

Universe of Exciting Innovations
Wanted you to know we've added a second blogger site for innovation news briefs and perspectives.  My colleague Ed Kane is posting news on the latest and most valuable world innovations across industries. Ed is a seasoned journalist, author and relentless researcher on innovation.   Here's a link to Ed's blog

Global Innovation Accelerating
We know the pace of innovation is accelerating and we're committed to providing bloggers full coverage on the most important innovations.  I'll be posting on this site as always about exciting, breaking innovation news.

Continental Drift Tied to Climate & Life

Research Links Life on Earth & Movement of Continents

Shifting Sediments Pushing Continents
This is fascinating, breakthrough geological/engineering research from the University of Texas Austin.  The UT scientists have demonstrated that sediment, which is often composed of dead organisms, may play a very key role in setting the speed of continental drift.

New Innovative Research on Continental Drift
This new research challenges the ideas about how continents drift and continental plates interact.  It strongly suggests interaction mechanisms between tectonic movement, climate and life on earth.

Moving the Parts
The study is in the journal Earth & Planetary Science Letters.  I find it fascinating and think you will too.  It describes how sediment moving under the tectonic plates regulates their movements.  This process may even play a part in the rapid rise of mountain ranges and the growth of the continental crunch.

Latest News on Aviation & Travel

Important Innovations:  Collection, Vol. 1 Transportation

Free Resource through Monday
Innovation in aviation from hypersonic jets to flying cars is accelerating at Mach speed.  My colleague Edward Kane has compiled a book on the latest in transportation innovation with a big focus on aviation.  It's called Important Innovations:  Collection, Vol. 1 Transportation and is on Amazon.  Ed showcases new travel technologies to get you to your destination including to seas and oceans.

Free Ebook
Wanted to make you aware that Amazon is running a free promotion on the ebook today, Sunday and Monday.  It's a valuable read and great resource that addresses many of the latest developments in travel innovation.  There's easy access to get the free book through Ed's Amazon Author's

Robotic Innovation News

Book on the Latest and Best in Robotics

Important Innovations:  Collection, Vol.2
Robotics is one of the most disruptive technologies of our time.  Innovation breakthroughs are impacting virtually every aspect of life.  My colleague Edward Kane has compiled a guide book on  the latest and best in robotic innovations.  It's called Important Innovations:  Collection, Vol. 2 and is on Amazon.

Valuable Robotic News Source
It's a great resource of fun reads on the most exciting emerging technologies from microscopic body bots fighting disease to Jeeves with AI, who serves as your household robot.

Free Borrow
Right now, you can borrow it for free and have easy access through Ed's Author Page on Amazon Important Innovations: Collection, Vol.

AI Lunar Robot Wanted by NASA

Latest Robotic News

Guide to Latest Robots
NASA is challenging the scientific community and the public to design a robot that is self-assembling and with artificial intelligence that can explore the surface of the moon.  The AI has to be powerful enough to enable the robot to make decisions based on what it's learning about the lunar surface.

2019 Challenge
The news came from William Harris, CEO of Space Center Houston.  The challenge will be officially announced in 2019.  The winning robot will be involved in scientific experiments.  For instance, there is evidence of frozen water beneath the moon's surface.  NASA believes that could be harvested to provide hydrogen fuel to power space missions.  The water also might enable space colonies according to NASA.

Latest in Robotics:  Important Innovations:  Collection
For a guide on the latest and best in robotic innovation, a great resource is Important Innovations:  Collection, Vol. 2 by my colleague Edward Kane.  Right now, you can…

Clean Hydrogen Fuel from Bacteria

From Wastewater to Hydrogen Fuel Cells

Important Innovations in Energy Development
This is remarkable scientific research.  Scientists at King Juan Carlos University in Spain are the first to document that applying electric current to purple bacteria generates hydrogen gas for the production of electricity.  It does so while also recovering 100% of the carbon from any organic waste.

Light Based Biorefining
Purple phototrophic bacteria capture and store energy from sunlight.  The Spanish scientists say they can harvest hydrogen fuel from sewage.  Industrial wastewater and household sewage contain organic compounds and are a big potential source of energy, bioplastics and even protein for animal feed.  But until now, there was no efficient extraction method.  As a result treatment plants discard them and cause high carbon emissions.

New Energy Source
The light based biorefinery process developed by scientists in Spain appears to be a means to harvest green energy from wastewater with a zer…

Renewable Energy News

New Book on Important Innovations in Renewable Energy

Fascinating, Fun News Briefs
80% of the world's energy consumption is fossil fuel. The carbon dioxide emissions are deleteriously changing life as we know it.  The world is pushing for a fix with cheap, accessible, efficient renewable energy solutions.

Important Innovations:  Collection, Vol. 4 - Energy
My colleague Edward Kane has just published a book chronicling the latest and greatest innovations in renewable, green, clean energy. It's on Amazon and can be accessed through Ed's Author page  Important Innovations: Collection, Vol. 4    It's titled Important Innovations:  Collection, Vol. 4.  The book showcases breakthrough innovations in solar energy, such as the orbiting magic carpet of solar panels soaking in the sun and relaying electricity back to earth. The latest and greatest energy innovations are included in wind, nuclear fusion, hydrogen, geothermal, deep space energy, kite w…

India's Manned Space Mission 2021

Great Leap Forward with Satellite Orbit Success

Space Milestone
India's communications satellite GSAT-29 now is in a geosynchronous orbit.  It was just launched today by ISRO's heavy lift rocket GSLV.  It went into orbit 16 minutes after it took flight.  It's a milestone for India's mission and ambitions in space.

Bringing Advanced Communications to Rural Areas
The satellite carries Ka and Ku based high communications transponders and is targeted at meeting the communications needs of people in remote areas of India such as Kashmir, Jammu and the northeastern parts of the country.  The satellite has a mission life of ten years.

On Target for Manned Missions
Today's success has reinforced India's belief they're on track for an unmanned space mission orbit in 2020 and a manned space mission in December 2021.

Top Scientists Call for Insecticide Ban

U-Cal Research: Common Insecticides Risk Brain Development

Widely Used Organophosphates Cause Big Risk to Early Brain Development This breakthrough research on insecticides widely used on farms, in malls and schools is from the University of California Davis.  The scientists have overwhelming evidence that prenatal exposure to common insecticides known as organophosphates puts children at risk for neurodevelopmental disorders.  The scientists are calling for immediate government action to phase the chemicals out.  Their scientific review and demand for action was published in PLOS Medicine.
Low Exposure to the Chemicals Leads to Lower IQ The study found "compelling evidence" that even low exposure in pregnant women to the organophosphate pesticides is associated with lower IQs and difficulties in learning, memory and attention in their children.  The scientists are implicating the entire class of organophosphate pesticides.
Widely Used on Farms and in Public Places It's imp…

World with No Traffic Lights & Tickets

New Driverless Car Tech

Big Energy Efficiencies and Travel Time Savings
Engineers at the University of Delaware, in collaboration with Boston University, have developed a new technology system for driverless cars that could make traffic lights and speeding tickets obsolete. The researchers used control theory to develop algorithms to control and minimize energy consumption in autonomous cars crossing city intersections with no traffic lights.  That's just the start.

Energy Efficient Mobility Systems
They used the software to simulate results.  The system enables the cars to conserve fuel and momentum while cutting travel time to their destinations.  The engineers are developing solutions that could enable the future of energy efficient mobility systems.

Results and Potential
The results have been published in the journal Automatica.  The team has created innovative tech to yield optimal acceleration and deceleration in speed reduction areas while avoiding crashes.  The potential is …

Renewable Energy from Space and Sun

Stanford University's Rooftop Renewable Energy Device

Provides Electricity and Cooling from Sun and Space
Scientists from Stanford University have created a first.  A single device that collects heat from the sun and coldness from outer space.  It simultaneously collects space and solar energy, generates electricity and coolness and functions with great efficiency.  Their research results have been published in the journal Joule.

Double Layer Panel
Their invention is a double layered rooftop panel.  The top layer is composed of standard semiconductor materials that go into solar cells.  The bottom layer is revolutionary and the combination of the 2 layers is being hailed as a potential gamechanger.  The bottom layer is composed of novel materials that collects the space energy and does the cooling.

Dual Functions:  Electricity and Cooling
The device combines radiative cooling with solar absorption technology.  On the roof the device would have a photovoltaic cell to provide electrici…

Going to a Renewable Energy Economy

International Research Solar Energy Push

Detailing Photosystem II
Photosystem II is a protein complex that splits water into hydrogen ions and oxygen during photosynthesis.  New images of the process, shown here, have been released by scientists at Uppsala University in Sweden.  A team of international scientists are taking part in this research.

Goal: Cheap, Efficient Solar Fuel Power
The new images are expected to help scientists to better understand what is a very complicated mechanism - photosystem II.  That detailed understanding could open the opportunity to develop solar fuel devices that are cheap and efficient.  Bottom-line:  photosystem II activates calcium and magnesium metal ions, which are cheap and plentiful, into a powerful water oxidation system.  By understanding the process, chemists potentially could do the same and open up solar fuel possibilities.

Renewable Energy Economy
Right now, 80% of global energy consumption is fuel based.  Solar fuel is carbon free or carbon …

Important Innovations News

Important Innovations:  Collection on Kindle

ASIN: B07K4QX385 

If you enjoy our news blogs on innovation, I wanted to let you know that Important Innovations:  Collection Vols. 1, 2 & 3 are on Kindle as e-books and paperbacks.  The can be borrowed online for free right now.

Vol. 1 of the Collection covers the latest in transportation innovation including hypersonic jets, flying cars and hyperloops.  Vol. 2 showcases the latest in robotics from Jeeves with AI to microrobots detecting and fighting disease.  Vol. 3 focuses on the latest in the rapidly accelerating and growing fields of AR, VR, AI, quantum computing and much more including breakthrough programs that DARPA is pursuing.

These are fun, quick news reads on the latest in breakthrough innovation that are a great resource for students, teachers, investors and anyone interested in the future.

Pro Football Goes Augmented Reality

Pittsburgh Steelers AR App

Heinz Field Becoming an AR Experience
The Pittsburgh Steelers have added an AR portion to their official app.  It enables fans inside Heinz Field to watch the game with embedded augmented reality.  The AR portion is a first of its kind and was created by Carnegie Mellon spinoff Yinzcam, a mobile sports technology startup.

AR Being Enabled and Expanded
The potential use of AR at live sporting events is awesome.  To start, the Steelers' AR app will allow fans to get a totally different experience of the game than those watching at home.  They can view videos, have touch access to view replays, visit one of the most popular parts of the stadium - the Terrible Towel Wall and a lot more.  The team says it's building a lot of functionality into the AR tech and rolling it out in the very near future.

Yinzcam is an innovation company with a mission to bring fans closer to the game through technology.  One of their specialties is AR.  Their tech enables…

AR Backbone for National News

Real Time Look at AG News

National News Experiments 
Here's a new example of how augmented reality might impact on another industry -  the news business.  A national television network used AR for the midterm election night coverage.  ABC custom-made a 360 degree election stage and used advanced AG technology to deliver election vote results. This is an AG tech wrap-around attempt.  As a journalist, I expect we're going to see more utilization of augmented reality to immerse viewers more deeply into coverage.

It's a Lot More than a Set
To effectively deliver AR news, it takes a lot more than an AR set.  For example, the graphics have to be in AR.  For ABC that minimally  required 36,000 lines of computer code and more than 1000 AR tracking markers within the set.  It also requires in-camera AR tracking systems. How about reporters on live locations?   It took ABC a year to develop this system at a considerable cost. A priority was to provide data to viewers without having to …

New System that Cleans and Splits Water

Solar DrivenPhotocatalytic System

New Material, Metal Organic Framework Class Drives It
Swiss scientists at the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) have created a system that can destroy pollutants in water while simultaneously splitting out the hydrogen for later use.  This is a solar driven system that is considered an important scientific breakthrough.

Solar Driven
It's a photocatalytic system based on a material in the metal organic framework class (MOF's).  These MOF's are some of the most versatile and useful materials recently discovered.  This particular substance that cleans and splits water is activated by light.

Big Applications
The hydrogen produced in the process can be used for hydrogen fuel cells now used in many technologies including green hydrogen trains and space shuttles.  The process is also highly effective in removing pollutants from water.

Cardiologists Using AR for Heart Surgery

Augmented Reality's 3 Dimensional Precision

AR Goggles in the OR
AR is a technology that superimposes computer generated information on the user's view of the real world.  It's being tested at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston.  And it seems to greatly help surgeons visualize complex medical data particularly during heart surgery.

Surgeons with AR Goggles
A new self-contained AR device provides surgeons with the opportunity to interactively explore data in 3 D and real time during complex surgical procedures.  Here's how it works.  The surgeon wears  AR goggles that are similar to the glass screens worn by divers.  The AR images are projected onto the surgeon's facial screen to augment their view and vital information on their patient during complex surgical procedures..

NIH Funded Successful Test Pilot Program
This is a pilot program and has been used successfully on 5 animal models.  The program is supported by the National Institute of Health and is b…

AR & VR Spending Takes Off

IDC Forecasts AR/VR Spending

Big Escalation through 2022

Global spending on AR/VR will soar at a 5 year CAGR (compound annual growth rate) of 72% over 2017-2022.  By the end of 2018 it will hit $27 billion, up 92% year over year.  What's happening to fuel the growth is escalating use across industries, including a number of new industries.  This is the latest tracking by the International Data Corporation, IDC.

Industry Use Rising, Along with China's
IDC is tracking a number of global industries increasingly using AR/VR. The number of industries is on the rise and is now up to 39 including consumer, education, media and government.  Another big growing user is China.

Industry Rankings
Consumer industries are the biggest user through 2022, reaching $53 billion by 2022.  This is followed by retail, manufacturing and transportation.  Gaming is the biggest user in 2018.  But by 2022 the biggest percentage increase users in spending will be retail, followed by labs, film and TV amusem…

Adidas Goes AR

Using Augmented Reality to Sell Limited Edition Sneaks

Cuts Sales Process from Hours to a Few Minutes
It's a time consuming and often frustrating process to buy much in demand, limited edition sneakers.  Adidas AG is changing the playing field.  It has just started deploying augmented reality to upend the process.

Adidas AR App
The company debuted an AR app at its big ComplexCom event in Long Beach, California.  Interested attendees downloaded an AR app that told them where to go in the complex to "Unlock the Drop".  Once there, they used their smartphones to follow instructions to pick a size, check out and where to pick up the sneakers.  All done with no sales staff interaction.  And most importantly the process took a few minutes, instead of hours.

Ramping Up AR
Adidas says it's focusing heavily on utilizing augmented reality as a means of increasing access to their most desired products.  Company officials say what they just unveiled is the tip of the iceberg in the…

Facebook AI Now ID's Galaxies

AI ID From Face to Deep Space

ClaRan Faces off in Space
Researchers have taught an AI program that's routinely used to recognize faces on Facebook to find galaxies deep in space.  Its mission has been transformed from face to space.  The artificial intelligence bot is called ClaRan.  It's been created by researchers at the International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR) who also serve on the faculty of the University of Western Australia.

Radio Galaxies
ClaRan scans images taken by radio telescopes.  It spots radio galaxies, which are galaxies that send strong radio jets from the huge black holes located in them. This new AI system was just created by big data specialist Dr. Chen Wu and astronomy expert Dr. Ivy Wong of the University of Western Australia and ICRAR.

Millions of Unknown Galaxies
Dr. Wong says black holes are found at the center of most galaxies. They send out "radio jets" that travel long distances, making it difficult for computers to find where…

Medical Breakthrough Reverses Paralysis

Targeted Neurotechnology Restores Ability to Walk

Significant Breakthrough for Spinal Cord Injuries
This is medicine at the cutting edge of innovation.  3 patients with paraplegia were able to walk again when their spinal cords received electrical stimulation via a wireless implant.  And after a few months of training the patients were able to control their previously paralyzed leg muscles without electrical stimulation.  The 3 had significant spinal cord injuries.

Swiss Precision
The study was led by the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne and the Lausanne University Hospital in Switzerland.  It establishes a new framework for improving recovery from spinal cord injuries.

Speedy and Effective Treatment
The patients, who had been paralyzed for years, regained voluntary control of their leg muscles within a week of treatment.  The patients are able to walk on their own with the aid of crutches or a walker.  Through their extensive research, the scientists and physicians were able to …